Saturday, May 23, 2020

National Supremacy Definition in the Constitution

National supremacy is a term used to describe the U.S. Constitutions authority over laws created by the states that may be at odds with the  goals held by the nations  founders when they were creating the new government in 1787. Under the Constitution, federal law is the supreme law of the land. Wording National supremacy is spelled out in the Constitutions Supremacy Clause, which states: This Constitution, and the Laws of the United States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding. Supreme Court Chief Justice John Marshall wrote in 1819 that the States have no power, by taxation or otherwise, to retard, impede, burden, or in any manner control, the operations of the constitutional laws enacted by Congress to carry into execution the powers vested in the general government. This is, we think, the unavoidable consequence of that supremacy which the Constitution has declared. The Supremacy Clause makes it clear that the Constitution and laws created by Congress take precedence over conflicting laws passed by the 50 state legislatures. This principle is so familiar that we often take it for granted, wrote Caleb Nelson, a law professor at the University of Virginia, and Kermit Roosevelt, a law professor at the University of Pennsylvania. But it wasnt always taken for granted.  The notion that federal law should be the law of the land was a controversial one or, as  Alexander Hamilton  wrote, the source of much virulent invective and petulant declamation against the proposed Constitution. Provisions and Limits The disparities between some state laws with federal law are what, in part, prompted the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787. But the authority granted to the federal government in the Supremacy Clause does not mean Congress can necessarily impose its will on states. National supremacy deals with resolving a conflict between the federal and state governments once federal power has been validly exercised, according to the Heritage Foundation. Controversy James Madison, writing in 1788, described the Supremacy Clause as a necessary part of the Constitution. To leave it out of the document, he said, would have eventually led to chaos among the states and between the state and federal governments, or as he put it, a monster, in which the head was under the direction of the members.   Wrote Madison: As the constitutions of the States differ much from each other, it might happen that a treaty or national law, of great and equal importance to the States, would interfere with some and not with other constitutions, and would consequently be valid in some of the States, at the same time that it would have no effect in others. In fine, the world would have seen, for the first time, a system of government founded on an inversion of the fundamental principles of all government; it would have seen the authority of the whole society every where subordinate to the authority of the parts; it would have seen a monster, in which the head was under the direction of the members. There have been disputes, however, over the Supreme Courts interpretation of those laws of the land. While the high court has held that states are bound by its decisions and must enforce them, critics of such judicial authority have tried to undermine its interpretations. Social  conservatives who are opposed to gay marriage, for example,  have called on states to ignore  a Supreme Court ruling striking  down state bans  on same-sex couples from tying the knot. Ben Carson, a Republican presidential hopeful in  2016, suggested those states could ignore a ruling from the judicial branch of the federal government, saying: If the legislative branch creates a law or changes a law, the executive branch has a responsibly to carry it out. It doesn’t say they have the responsibility to carry  out a judicial law. And that’s something we need to talk about.† Carsons suggestion is not without precedent. Former Attorney General Edwin Meese, who served under Republican President Ronald Reagan, raised questions about whether the Supreme Courts interpretations carry the same weight as legislation and the constitutional law of the land. However the court may interpret the provisions of the Constitution, it is still the Constitution which is the law, not the decisions of the Court, Meese said, quoting constitutional historian  Charles Warren. Meese agreed that a decision from the nations highest court binds the parties in the case and also the executive branch for whatever enforcement is necessary, but he added that such a decision does not establish a supreme law of the land that is binding on all persons and parts of government, henceforth and forevermore.   State Laws vs. Federal Law Several high-profile cases have resulted in states clashing with the federal law of the land. Among the most recent disputes is the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, the landmark healthcare overhaul and signature legislative accomplishment of President Barack Obama. More than two dozen states have spent millions of dollars in taxpayer money challenging the law and trying to block the federal government from enforcing it. In one of their biggest victories over  the federal law of the land, the states were  given the authority by a 2012 Supreme Court decision to  decide whether they should expand Medicaid. The ruling left the ACA’s Medicaid expansion intact in the law, but the practical effect of the Court’s decision makes the Medicaid expansion optional for states, wrote the Kaiser Family Foundation. Also, some states openly defied court rulings in the 1950s  declaring  racial segregation in public schools unconstitutional and a  denial of equal protection of the laws. The Supreme Courts 1954 ruling invalidated laws in 17 states that required  segregation. States also challenged the federal Fugitive Slave Act of 1850.

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Eolic Energy in Australia - 869 Words

Wind energy is one of the most commercially reliable and cost-effective renewable energy (RE) resources available worldwide and its utilization in Australia is undoubtedly an advantageous prospect. Initially, the generation of wind energy is produced through the motion of air from high pressure to low pressure, as this progression is a direct consequence of the solar heating of various parts of the Earths atmosphere and its planetary motion, thus resulting in the air being deflected to the right in the northern hemisphere and in the opposite direction in the southern hemisphere (Duffie and William, 2013). It is generally observed that wind power generation is the best suited source for Australias future as it is clean, low-cost (in†¦show more content†¦The final statistical results displayed that the maximum wind speeds were observed at Tasmanias Macquarie Island weather station (10.2 m/s) and its approximate electricity price ranged from AUD$0.25/kWh to AUD$0.4/kWh whilst, the energy production in Northern Territory proved to be of no possibility in both economics and environment as its energy production made no contribution at all (except for the grid) (GM Shafiullah et al, 2011). Therefore, as Tasmania ranked the highest in all relevant areas, it is concluded this state is the most suitable location for the construction of generation of wind energy (GM Shafiullah et al, 2011). Just as there are positive benefits from utilizing this renewable source, there are also some key disadvantages associated with wind energy generation which should be considered. Firstly, the effect of visual impacts depends not only upon the outward appearance of the turbines, but also the individuals personal attitudes to their presence (G.M Shafiullah, 2012). Similarly, a study conducted by Gourlay (2008) showed that the majority of the UK population (approximately 70%) had displayed a positive outlook

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Democracy in Pakistan-a Dilemma Free Essays

Against the backdrop of recent surge in political temperature, speakers at a roundtable discussion forum stress the need for continuation of democratic process despite of all the current challenges faced by it. In a roundtable discussion forum â€Å"Political Expediency and the Future of Democracy in Pakistan† organized by the Center for Research and Security Studies (CRSS), at its office premises in Islamabad, issues and challenges related to current democratic governance and prospects of a democratic Pakistan were discussed in detail. Mr. We will write a custom essay sample on Democracy in Pakistan-a Dilemma or any similar topic only for you Order Now Ahmed Bilal Mahoob, executive director, Pakistan Institute of Legislative Development and Transparency(PILDAT) opened the discussion with an overly optimistic note and observed: â€Å"Democracy in Pakistan has never been as good as it is today. † He noted that it is the first time in history of Pakistan that three state pillars, those are Executive, Judiciary and the Legislature are carving out their respective ways out of this challenging political environment and it is a good omen for young democracy. In the past, judiciary was under the influence of executives, but now it is independent and assertive. Related essay: Pillars of Democracy in Tanzania Parliament in a democracy is always considered a vital state pillar, but again it tried to overpower the other state organs. Against this backdrop, during the era of current democratic government, the growth of all state organs is continuous and stable. Likewise, during current democratic rule, for the first time, Senate was chaired by an opposition representative. Then if we look towards media, we have a robust and independent media, which explicitly does not seem under the influence of government. Coming to the democratic governance, Mr. Mahboob asserted the notion that there is widespread political discontentment and disillusionment among the masses. And ironically, the people have directed all their criticism and scathing towards federal government and spared the provincial governments altogether, whereas under the 18th amendment, most of the ministries have been devolved to the provinces. Therefore when we disparage the federal government, we should also vent some anger on provincial governments as well. Discussing the recent upsurge in political temperature, Mr. Mahboob stated â€Å"As we are nearing to the close up of this government, therefore, all political parties want to gear up the political momentum in order to gain mileage out of it in coming elections. He further continued by saying that â€Å"Almost all opinion surveys and polls in recent months suggest that the people are fed up by the present government— and want a change, so this upsurge is not abnormal and nothing is worrisome in it†. He narrated that when we talk about the freedom of expression, we generally take a pride after looking at the countries, which enjoyed sustained periods of democracy. And this is something that we should cherish, despite of all short comings. He termed the â€Å"Imran Khan phenomenon† as a harbinger of positive change in the political arena of Pakistan. PPP leader and former federal minister, Syeda Abida Hussain said that since inception Pakistanis wished for democratic rule in the country, and it is because, â€Å"Pakistan born out of vote†. But, she lamented that we have been scathing under long dictatorial rules for better part of our political history and there are reasons for it. She observed that though we as a nation may have developed liking for democratic rule, but ironically we lack political temperament. Mrs. Hussain said that the voices for change are getting louder and louder with the passage of time. She acknowledged that there is rampant corruption in the country and no state department is free of it. â€Å"State institutions should be established on the basis of equality, charter of democracy should be written by all the parties struggling for rule of law in the country†, she suggested. Every one of us talks about poor governance but nobody did anything† she lamented. She reiterated that we have to make the system more responsive through sustained efforts for efficient democratic governance. Meanwhile, if we resorted for premature political solutions at this stage, then the future of democracy in Pakistan will be dark once again. She warned that the covert apparatus is once again out with its ulterior motives and the political parties will have understand its maneuvering for the benefit of democratic et up in the country. Former lawmaker from Swat, Mr. Adnan Aurangzeb said that in Pakistan â€Å"—the gap between political representatives and the represented is widening relentlessly† and this is not healthy sign for the future of democracy in the country. He underlined that there are structural problems, which are not letting the democratic culture take hold in Pakistan. He said that unfortunately, the legislators in Pakistan are not well connected with their constituencies, and therefore the people feel marginalized. According to him, there lies huge social, cultural, economic and political void between the rulers and the ruled. And this pertinent factor will continue to haunt the dream of a peaceful and prosperous democratic Pakistan. Participants in the roundtable discussion forum were of the view that there is need for a responsive democratic governance structure and without accountability the dividends of democracy will not trickle down the masses. And in consequence, the ubiquitous discontent will eventually lead towards the folding of the political system. How to cite Democracy in Pakistan-a Dilemma, Essay examples

Friday, May 1, 2020

Introduction To Animal Rights Essay Example For Students

Introduction To Animal Rights Essay At the University of Oregon, Barbara Gorden-Lickey, Ph. D., sewed kittens eyes shut and forced them to jump from a height onto a platform surrounded by water so she could study the effects of sight deprivation on the brain. Cruel and inhumane experiments like this one is an excellent reason why people should recognize the importance of animal right activist groups such as PETA (People of the Ethical Treatment of Animals). Founded in 1980 by Ingrid E. Newkirk and Alex Pacheco, PETA is the largest group in the world with 600,000 plus members. PETAs effort to delete animal abuse in factory farms, laboratories, fur trade, and entertainment through education, investigations, research, animal rescues, legislation, social events, celebrity involvement, and direct action is because of the alarming amount of animals (seventy million) in which are experimented on by private institutions, house hold product companies, cosmetic companies, government agencies, education institutions, and scientif ic centers. PETAs intense thoughts towards stopping animal abuse were stated in one protestors sign, Imagine having your body left to science while youre still in it. A lack of recognition and support for such groups causes innocent animals, with feelings as strong as humans, unnecessary pain and psychological stress. Similar to the process that an airports customs goes through to protect innocent country folk from terrorism, drug trafficking, and infectious products, groups such as PETA are trying to protect the innocent animals who are merely trying to survive in a hectic and sometimes cruel world that humans seem to believe they run. Without help from these organized groups (custom or animal rights groups) the outcome of the acts performed by any individual could weigh heavenly on everyone. Supporting PETA and other animal rights organizations to help stop cruelty to animals in laboratories fur trade, and entertainment will improve the quality of life for, and saves the lives of , thousands of innocent animals. Seventy million animals are maimed, blinded, scalded, force-fed chemicals, genetically manipulated, and other wise hurt and killed in the name of science. The majority of these cruel acts take place in research laboratories around the world, but with the help of PETAs efforts many experiments done in labs have been stopped. In one case, PETAs undercover investigation of Boys Town National Research Hospitals experiments, in which kittens heads were cut into and cats were starved in order to study deafness, spurred the National Institutes of Health to issue a report condemning Boys Towns animal care and use program. The USDA found that Boys Town failed to comply with the Animal Welfare Act. PETA also discovered that only twenty-three out of fifty-four dogs slated for cancer experiments at the City of Hope, a federally funded laboratory, survived long enough for the actual experiment to begin. The rest died of infections, poisoning, anesthesia overdose, and other causes linked to gross negligence, inadequate veterinary care, and improper housing. Such abuse acts on animals are inhumane and absolutely unnecessary. With PETAs protection, animals can live freely without being subjected to researchers invasive and hostile terrorists like acts. We will write a custom essay on Introduction To Animal Rights specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Laboratory experiments are not the only place where unethical treatment of animals takes place. In the business of fur trading many animals are tormented and killed ruthlessly. In one of PETAs precedent-setting cases, a California furrier was charged with cruelty after a PETA investigator filmed him electrocuting chinchillas by clipping wires to the animals genitals. The American Veterinary Medical Association denounced the killing method saying, it causes animals to experience a heart attack while fully conscious. In another undercover expose, PETA videotaped a fur rancher injecting minks with weed killer causing them to have violent seizures and finally dying in agony. Both farms were forced to end the cruel killing methods.The forcing of animal to give up their fur for the pleasure of wear resembles drug pushers who strip young childrens innocent minds of the morals and right and wrongs that they were taught or given by their parents. These drug dealers like furriers forcefully t ake what does not belong to them (innocent minds or fur) to fulfill their desires. With the help of customs, who help keep drugs form entering the country and PETA who help stop fur traders cruel killing methods, people and animals have one less of the multitude of problems to deal with. Although the problem of animal abuse seems to be only involved in situations where some sort of pain or death will inevitably be inflicted, such as laboratories or fur farms, animal abuse often times occurs in home and in training schools. In such cases, PETA has investigated and ha produced great success in helping stop the abuse. For instance, PETA distributed an undercover video showing Las Vegas entertainer Bobby Berosini beating orangutans with a metal rod. The U.S. Department of the Interior revoked Berosinis captive-bred wildlife permit, making it illegal for Berosini to buy or sell orangutans. In another case, PETAs undercover investigation of a Florida exotic animal training school revealed big cats being beaten with ax handles, spurring the USDA to develop new regulations governing animal training methods. Thanks to PETAs accomplishments of having animal training methods regulated, pet owners can be sure that their beloved animals receive the respect, kindness, and caring they deserve. .u063ed47e0dec92bcfc7c3c054eb94c6a , .u063ed47e0dec92bcfc7c3c054eb94c6a .postImageUrl , .u063ed47e0dec92bcfc7c3c054eb94c6a .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u063ed47e0dec92bcfc7c3c054eb94c6a , .u063ed47e0dec92bcfc7c3c054eb94c6a:hover , .u063ed47e0dec92bcfc7c3c054eb94c6a:visited , .u063ed47e0dec92bcfc7c3c054eb94c6a:active { border:0!important; } .u063ed47e0dec92bcfc7c3c054eb94c6a .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u063ed47e0dec92bcfc7c3c054eb94c6a { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u063ed47e0dec92bcfc7c3c054eb94c6a:active , .u063ed47e0dec92bcfc7c3c054eb94c6a:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u063ed47e0dec92bcfc7c3c054eb94c6a .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u063ed47e0dec92bcfc7c3c054eb94c6a .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u063ed47e0dec92bcfc7c3c054eb94c6a .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u063ed47e0dec92bcfc7c3c054eb94c6a .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u063ed47e0dec92bcfc7c3c054eb94c6a:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u063ed47e0dec92bcfc7c3c054eb94c6a .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u063ed47e0dec92bcfc7c3c054eb94c6a .u063ed47e0dec92bcfc7c3c054eb94c6a-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u063ed47e0dec92bcfc7c3c054eb94c6a:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Greek Mythology (1019 words) EssayOrganizations, such as PETA, need all the support they can get. If people would recognize the horrible and indecent act performed on our fellow earthlings maybe they would begin to realize the importance of supporting animal rights groups. Many groups are non-profit organizations, and would appreciate any information, contributions, or other forms of support. For example, supporting products that do not test on animals, not wearing/using animal made products, or providing animals with the respect they deserve can help reduce the amount of animals unfairly treated. PETA has brought a lot of positive changes to the way animals are treated. T hese positive changes have allowed the animals a chance to live a less stressful and mistreated life. A type Social Issues

Saturday, March 21, 2020

MUHAMMAD AZIZUL RAHMAN BIN RODUAN Essays - Zoos, Apoikozoa, Filozoa

MUHAMMAD AZIZUL RAHMAN BIN RODUAN MC 160100277 Impact of Cell Phones on People: Pros and Cons Over the years, the world has witnessed a booming number of cell phones. They are dramatically changing the way people contact, communicate, interact or socialize with each other. It is apparent that cell phone has had a profound influence on personal lives. However, not all of the impact of them could be positive nor negative, this is because the existent of these multifunctional tools have both pros and cons and the side effect is obviously made or judge based on the user itself. Recently, people who is actually living in this deep world of communication era now days belief that this communication devices has an advantage to bring significant fortune or profit to the agencies, companies and marketers, and whenever this cellular phones become popular, many of the tech user started to recognized that this incredible outstanding devices is qualified as a need for them. As developments in communication continue, cell phone devices become more advance and sophisticated. For example, cellular phones are now equipped with greater multiple functionalities, thus, making these electronic devices essential in the communication system of any businesses. Indeed, cell phones are always connected to the Internet, via a data network, mobile broadband or Wi-Fi connection. However, the very things that make cellular phones so convenient and useful are the same things that can stop user in their tracks with a dead battery. The more application and programs running in the phone, the more energy it needs to perform. Even though battery life is drain out, cell phones still consider as a source of unlimited entertainment. The things which we never thought would be present in a cellular phone are now possible. Which means cell phones have come into existence which not only helping in making calls but also help out user to stay entertained by allowing the user themselves to play games, listen to music and do lots of other stuff. Although cell phones had a bunch of possibilities to the majority of society there is also a disease came along with it, such as causing a distraction and addiction. It is true that people are now getting a numerous number of advantages from a single high tech cell phone but these communication technologies also have several negative impacts. For example, using cell phones too often could probably be harmful for human's health as it can increase the risk of brain cancer and lacking of face to face communication is also the result of using cell phones. Instead of going out or finding an alternative ways to prevent laziness, many people still prefer to stay at home and use their cell phones to connect to others "online" In conclusion, we can see how cell phone is capable changing our cultures in both good and bad ways. Even though these devices have brought people from different parts of the world closer together, it does not mean it has not alienated the people closest to us. As useful as cellular phones are, it is important to use them accordingly and not make them our lifeline to the outside world. Communication consists of verbal and non-verbal cues and this is what makes us feel close to one another and measure should be taken to ensure this does not stop. Is keeping animals in zoos acceptable? In recent years, zoos are consider as a place where animals from around the world are kept and technically animals are being forced to be taken away from their natural habitat, where there are naturally existing food sources, enemies, and placed inside of a cage that keeps out all of animals which consists of only a small percentage of the naturally occurring flora and fauna to which the animal is accustomed. With no natural predators or food sources to hunt, many animals will lose their natural instincts, which are necessary for survival. This prevents reintegration into the animal kingdom and leaves them sentenced for life in a zoo. However, there is no doubt that zoo's main goal is to ensure that these overall animals were protected from the midst of a global extinction crisis. Not only zoos play a critical role in fighting for wildlife extinction,

Thursday, March 5, 2020

Developing Branding Strategies

Developing Branding Strategies Free Online Research Papers Developing branding strategies to position a brand, even in the time of recession :: A Global Perspective. Brand strategy is aimed at influencing people’s perception of a brand in such a way that they are persuaded to act in a certain manner, e.g. buy and use the products and services offered by the brand, purchase these at higher price points, donate to a cause. In addition, most brand strategies aim to persuade people to buy, use, and donate again by offering them some form of gratifying experience. As branding is typically an activity that is undertaken in a competitive environment, the aim is also to persuade people to prefer the brand to competition. A global brand needs to provide relevant meaning and experience to people across multiple societies. To do so, the brand strategy needs to be devised that takes account of the brand’s own capabilities and competencies, the strategies of competing brands, and the outlook of consumers (including business decision makers) which has been largely formed by experiences in their respective societies. There are four broad brand strategy areas that can be employed. (1) Brand Domain. Brand domain specialists are experts in one or more of the brand domain aspects (products/services, media, distribution, solutions). A brand domain specialist tries to pre-empt or even dictate particular domain developments. This requires an intimate knowledge, not only of the technologies shaping the brand domain, but also of pertinent consumer behaviour and needs. The lifeblood of a brand domain specialist is innovation and creative use of its resources. A brand domain specialist is like a cheetah in the Serengeti preying on impala and gazelle. The cheetah is a specialist hunter with superior speed to chase, and the claws and teeth to kill these animals. The cheetah is also very familiar with the habits of its prey. It finds ways of approaching, singling out and capturing its prey. The cheetah is one of the most accomplished of hunters within the wild cat species; it catches up to 70% of prey that it hunts. (2) Brand Reputation. Brand reputation specialists use or develop specific traits of their brands to support their authenticity, credibility or reliability over and above competitors. A brand reputation specialist needs to have some kind of history, legacy or mythology. It also needs to be able to narrate these in a convincing manner, and be able to live up to the resulting reputation. A brand reputation specialist has to have a very good understanding of which stories will convince consumers that the brand is in some way superior. A brand reputation specialist is like a horse. It can be pure-bred, have a certain nobility and bearing, and exhibit qualities that can be traced back to these (e.g. grace, speed, temperament, looks). Like a horse, the brand reputation specialist can also thrive on association with celebrities. (3) Brand Affinity. Brand affinity specialists bond with consumers based on one or more of a range of affinity aspects. A brand affinity specialist needs to outperform competition in terms of building relationships with consumers. This means that a brand affinity specialist needs to have a distinct appeal to consumers, be able to communicate with them affectively, and provide an experience that reinforces the bonding process. A brand affinity specialist is like a pet dog. A dog is generally considered to be man’s best friend, due to its affection, its obedience, its loyalty, the status and the protection it provides to its owners. Different kinds of dogs will command a different form of affection. (4) Brand Recognition. Brand recognition specialists distinguish themselves from competition by raising their profiles among consumers. The brand recognition specialist either convinces consumers that it is somehow different from competition, as is the case for niche brands, or rises above the melee by becoming more well-known among consumers than competition. The latter is particularly important in categories where brands have few distinguishing features in the minds of consumers. In some cases, a brand recognition specialist needs to be able to outspend competition to gain unbeatable levels of awareness. In other cases, a brand recognition specialist needs to convince a loyal following of consumers that it is unique. A recognition specialist is like a peacock. Most of us will know little about birds, but we can recognise a peacock from a large distance. We may not know its precise qualities, but if we were to choose between birds we are more likely to plump for a peacock than for a more ordinary specimen, because of its beauty and presence. THE BRAND ENVIRONMENT A brand operates in a space that is defined by its own company or organisation, its competitors, and the societies where it operates. There are both internal and external factors that influence how a brand is finally perceived and experienced by consumers. Internal Factors Factors that are internal to a brand’s company or organisation can be categorised as being strategy-related, performance-related and stemming from the brand’s past. The strategy-related factors are those that derive from the business strategy and the marketing strategy. There is a strategy hierarchy, whereby business strategy takes the lead, guiding brand strategy. Brand strategy in its turn guides marketing strategy. The business strategy is aimed at achieving particular consumer behaviour. Only if consumers actually purchase, use (more often), pay a higher price or donate (more) will objectives of a business strategy be met. These objectives may include a larger market share, increased returns, higher margins and increased shareholder value. Brands are designed to persuade consumers to exhibit the behaviour that will make these objectives come true for the organisation. Thus the influence of business strategy upon brand strategy is direct and compelling. The marketing strategy aims to translate the brand strategy into actual products or services, with a specific price, to be sold at specific outlets, to be promoted through specific communications activities and channels, and to be supported by specific service. The influence of the marketing strategy is thus indirect in that the correct translation of the brand into the marketing mix determines whether consumers get the correct impression of the brand. The performance-related factors are dependent upon the marketing implementation, i.e. the actual production and delivery of the products and services, their accompanying messages to consumers, and the actual product or service experience. The implementation eventually determines whether consumers experience what the brand strategy set out to provide. The marketing implementation may make or break a brand at the moment that is of most importance to consumers: e.g. when they actually experience the brand through advertising, promotions, purchase, usage, and after-sales service. The factors that stem from the brand’s past are the brand’s internal legacy and its internal conventions. The brand’s internal legacy is about who have developed it, who have managed it over the years, and what the role of the brand has become for the organisation. This influences how management, staff, partners, distributors and shareholders view the brand and its future potential. It may prove difficult to change such perceptions once a brand has been slotted into a specific position. The internal conventions of an organisation are such issues as how things are typically done, support systems, what the culture is like, who has the power to decide, who has the power to frustrate decisions, the structure of the organisation, its policies, and its (other) activities. For a global brand, such influencing factors exist at central as well as at local levels. More often than not, there are tensions between central and local a s specific factors work in opposite directions, and people within the organisation have different agendas for the brand. External Factors External influences upon a brand strategy come mainly from three quarters: competition, consumers and media. These external influences will vary between the markets and societies where a brand operates. Therefore, these influences need to be determined locally. When a brand is introduced into a foreign society, it will encounter particular brand strategies that are being practiced by competitive brands. Unless competitors are very complacent, head-on confrontations with them are generally not the best way of winning the hearts and minds of consumers. It is, therefore, important to determine competitors. Brand strategies and to find ways of flanking established competition by choosing an alternative strategy. Category conventions are the unwritten rules that govern the way in which products or services are designed, advertised, distributed, serviced, priced, experienced, etc. Challenging such conventions may provide a brand with a competitive advantage. It is imperative that such a challenge has value to consumers and that they are willing to go along with the challenge. This is only the case if the particular convention is no longer rock solid. Such opportunities emerge when competition is complacent and underestimates the effects of the challenge. An example is the advent of on-line share trading, which became possible due to the combined development of the Internet and the popularisation of shareholding. Established stockbrokers failed to respond adequately to the challenge to their conventional mode of operations and thus lost a lot of their business to Charles Swab cum sues. Cultural conventions determine how people in a society interact, what they believe, how they make decisions and what meanings they attach to certain representations. Cultures are not static, but develop through intergenerational and interpersonal learning and experience. A cultural convention can be challenged if it is already losing its value to consumers and is ready to be replaced by something new. Therefore, one needs to be on the lookout for such cultural shifts. Once identified, it becomes a matter of deciding whether the challenge will be of perceived value to consumers and will provide competitive advantage. Needs conventions determine the forms in which consumer’s needs are manifested. Human needs are not universal and neither is the importance placed upon each need. However, the major differences lie in the manner in which a need is articulated or the form of a solution that is provided to a need. For example, although there is a general need for nutrition, there are considerable differences between societies with regard to which foodstuffs are acceptable for specific meals. Not to mention foods that are totally unacceptable to specific societies, as witnessed by the controversy over the consumption of dog meat during the upcoming world cup soccer finals in Korea. The media can seriously affect a brand strategy in a positive or a negative manner. In some developing countries foreign brands are promoted by the media as examples of modernity, while in others these same brands may be portrayed as the vanguards of a foreign domination. Particularly, bad news about brands can spread like wild fire across boarder, as Coke found out in Belgium, where the outsides of some bottles were contaminated with a fungicide, causing a health scare. Benefits of brand strategies Branding, once the brand is established, should create an increase in profitability and customer acquisition and retention, so there’s every reason to kick-start it early in the process as long as the products are good enough to sustain the brand promise, of course. Branding creates highly visible success stories which encourage other companies to follow suit, more enthusiastically and faster than they otherwise would. Brands are the rock stars of commerce, and create many fans, both at home and abroad. Branding creates expectations of product quality which the manufacturer has to work twice as hard to maintain: this accelerates the development of a first world-style approach to both quality control and innovation. Putting your own brand name on your products â€Å"raises the bar†. Examples of single companies in the West tend to show that the companies that understand the importance of brand early on in their growth - and practise it well and build their corporate strategy around it - are often the ones which grow fastest. Having a powerful brand - even if it is merely in strategic form, without solid customer recognition yet behind it - makes companies more powerful. They are perceived by investors, competitors, suppliers and other businesses as more valuable, and carry more weight in all kinds of negotiations. Potential value, if it is clearly reasoned and intelligently planned, is universally recognized as real value; strategy, creativity and ambition are universally recognized as indicators of potential. Building a global image If we’re talking about branding a product and the product is good, if you have the distribution and marketing, if you have the money - and it does cost money - then you can start building a global brand within a couple of years. If you are talking about the reputation of a country, it depends very much from what base you are starting. If you are starting from a strongly negative base, then I would normally say 15 to 20 years, but things are changing so fast these days that it might be 10 to 15 years. If you are a transition economy, and things are going pretty well for you anyway, it could be achieved in 5 to 10 years. In all of these cases, the brand image is never changed by spending huge amounts of money on logos, slogans and advertising campaigns but by having a good strategy and investing in change. In the end it comes down to creating a culture of innovation in the public and private sectors. The 9 characteristics of a brand A strong brand is defined and characterized by the following 9 dimensions: 1. A brand drives shareholder value 2. The brand is led by the boardroom and managed by brand marketers with an active buy-in from all stakeholders 3. The brand is a fully integrated part of the entire organisation aligned around multiple touch points 4. The brand can be valued in financial terms and must reside on the asset side of the balance sheet 5. The brand can used as collateral for financial loans and can be bought and sold as an asset 6. Customers are willing to pay a substantial and consistent price premium for the brand versus a competing product and service 7. Customers associate themselves strongly with the brand, its attributes, values and personality, and they fully buy into the concept which is often characterized by a very emotional and intangible relationship (higher customer loyalty) 8. Customers are loyal to the brand and would actively seek it and buy it despite several other reasonable and often cheaper options available (higher customer retention rate) 9. A brand is a trademark and marquee (logo, shape, colour etc) which is fiercely and pro-actively protected by the company and its legal advisors Suggestions for  Recession Proof Branding Fix the fundamentals The current conditions are a ‘wake-up call’ for marketing, forcing teams to become much more business-savvy and bottom-line focused. This is how marketing always should have been run, these fundamentals have in many cases been forgotten. Follow the money One of the most important mottos is ‘follow the money’. It is more relevant than ever today. It means cutting the bull**** and buzzwords, and being much more business savvy. Brand teams should be crystal clear about which growth drivers marketing activity will focus on, such as increasing trial or weight of purchase. It also requires more rigour than before in assessing the effectiveness of marketing activities once they are in market. Interestingly, several of the marketing directors we interviewed were building a team of in-house experts working on measuring return-on-investment (ROI), rather than relying on their advertising or media agency to do this for them. Sharpen your vision In today’s tough time you need a razor-sharp brand positioning, and crystal clear portrait of your target consumer. Clearly positioned brands have a much better chance of cutting through the clutter of price-cutting messages, and survive the threat of cheaper competition. Smart brands are sticking to their vision, but adapting their message in line with the needs of consumers to save money. Hit the right price Focusing on hitting the right price is the point. Consumers are paying more attention to prices on shelf, just as raw material costs are pushing prices up. Rise above a key price-point, and they’ll switch. Cut costs, not corners Another opportunity is marketing process efficiency. Better briefing can save valuable time, and budget. Kill the dwarves Tough times are forcing more ruthless focus. It’s time to kill the ‘dwarves’, cute but small new products that eat up valuable time and resources; or at the minimum cut their marketing support so they die a natural death. Budgets and people can they be focused on driving growth of ‘hero’ products that drive i) significant business growth and ii) desired changes in brand image. We expect to see a cull of many new launches where brands have strayed from their core business and taken on big competitors with big marketing budgets, without having a clear point of difference and compelling value proposition. Grow the core Today’s tough times made growing the core an imperative. In most cases this core business is both the most profitable, and the one where the brand has the most authority, and so the best ability to defend itself from attack. MORE BANGS FOR YOUR BUCK Pressure on marketing budgets will only increase over the next couple of years. Boards will freeze or even cut marketing investment, despite all the studies showing that this is bad in the long run. But they’ll still expect the sales forecast to be delivered. The only way to do this is to get more bang for your marketing buck. Be brave, make waves Now is the time to work your brand idea hard to create ‘PR-able’ marketing ideas. Brave ideas that generate free publicity allow you to maximise your budget’s impact. Everything must sell Every bit of the brand (e.g. packaging, websites, secondary packaging) can be used to actively encourage existing users to use more. Packvertising How many packs a year do you sell? For many companies this runs into the millions. And that’s several million bits of free media space, or ‘packvertising’, that you can use for free. For example, packs can be used to cross-sell, as done by Pantene, using its shampoo and conditioner packs to cross-sell the brand’s new styling range. Simple, but effective as it is placing a message at exactly the moment when hair styling is done – after you wash your hair. This can even work on small packs. Fuel your fan clubs The smartest companies we talked to are using two under-utilised sales forces to help grow their brands. The first sales force is loyal users of the brand. With a bit of effort you could increase their effectiveness in spreading positive word-of-mouth about your brand, and research has shown that this can increase the efficiency of your marketing budget by 40%. Like Sunsilk has created its own fan club by the name ‘Gang of Girls’ to make the girls more brand conscious and bring a sense of self belongingness towards the product. Share the pain or entertain Many of our marketing directors highlighted the need to get closer than ever to consumers during tough times, to maintain and even strengthen their bond with the brand. The most obvious way to do this is by ‘sharing the pain’ by pro-actively helping people through the hard times, and showing you care. Low-priced brands are of course well-placed to do this. Like Mc Donald has its punch line like ‘purane zamane ke daam’. This makes the consumer think if the prices are low and its cheap to buy they would refer it to the other members of the family. Recession: A perfect time to build your brand? Sounds strange doesn’t it? But it is true! A financial downturn is the perfect time to build your brand and reinforce it with your target demographic as well as expand your audience. It may sound counter-intuitive but when people are not spending money is usually the best time to get them to learn about who you are. In a time of tight finances people are far more wary about what they spend their money on. We all do it. It is a very logical and financially responsible thing to do. However, from a business perspective that kind of thinking is the perfect mentality required for brand building. People are studying products more intensely than they normally would simply because they want to wisely spend their hard earned money. So, you as a business owner should be pumping your brand more and working harder to make your presence know. People will study your brand more intensely when they are watching their wallets. Notice sales haven’t been mentioned once. That’s because your objective should shift during a recession. You should focus more of your energy and money on building the public awareness about your product and its existence. With people focusing so intently on each and every little thing they buy you should take advantage of that mentality in your advertising and marketing plans. It is not necessary by spending more money on advertising but your approach to it should change. If you’re not involved in social networking this is the perfect time to get into it. Let people know you’re out there and you offer a fantastic product or service they can keep in mind once things get rolling. If someone sees your product and studies it more in-depth than they normally would you have a rare opportunity to gain a foothold in their conscience and become a brand they are familiar with when the financial tides turn. It is advisable new companies to launch new products and ad campaigns during financial downturns simply because people are more likely to study your product and collateral than they normally would. It most likely won’t translate to immediate sales but you will see them when people have money to spend. Don’t think you have to stop or even cut back your advertising and marketing, just take a different approach and take advantage of the mindset of the market. Research Papers on Developing Branding StrategiesA Marketing Analysis of the Fast-Food RestaurantConflict Resolution TacticsGene One the Transition from Private to PublicInternational PaperDefinition of Export QuotasCash or Card?Genetic EngineeringFalse AdvertisingDistance Learning Survival GuideGap Analysis: Lester Electronics

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Organising the classroom for ADHD pupils Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Organising the classroom for ADHD pupils - Essay Example The incident impacted on me as it gave me a chance to experience firsthand how ADHD students act in the classroom setting. The end goal of this paper is to establish ways by which the classroom can be managed to fit the needs of the ADHD student. The coaching model provides a strong foundation for the learning which needs to be established for ADHD students. This model seeks to assist students in reframing how they understand themselves as capable individuals. Coaches would set ground rules in order to secure boundaries on what students may or may not do, and the goals they can establish for themselves. These coaches also ask questions in order to help the ADHD students reflect; they also encourage problem-solving skills and provide encouragement and self-belief (Derrington, 2005). This situation involves an ADHD student who manifested the classic signs of ADHD including hyperactivity, short attention span, easy distractibility, class disruptiveness, impulsivity and inattentiveness. Due to his symptoms, he was also having difficulty keeping up with the class lessons. The importance of having to secure a conducive learning environment for him became a necessity especially when the student was falling well behind his other classmates. A plan was established in order to provide support for the student and to ensure his full and effective participation. Such support is partly based on the coaching model which accepts the importance of providing guidance and encouragement for the students in their lessons and activities. The student had one-on-one support for his daily lessons, however, this was not working well for the student as different teaching assistants were assigned to him for each subject. The different approaches of the teaching assistants made the situation even more difficult for the student to adapt to. After the teachers and teaching assistants met and discussed the student’s case, it was suggested that there was a need to make changes in the cl assroom in order to ensure more efficient outcomes. It was suggested that the student needed to have only one teaching assistant assigned to him for his daily lessons. This would help provide consistency and discipline for his lessons and his learning. The reflective process and model which would be applied for this essay would be the Gibbs reflection style. This reflective style provides specific details on the different events surrounding the critical incident. The actions and decisions involving the incident will then be critically assessed and analyzed, applying evidence-based research in order to provide sufficient support and logic for the actions made (Jasper, 2003). This reflective model includes a description of the event, the feelings during the incident, the evaluation of the incident, an analysis of the incident, and an action plan for the incident (Jasper, 2003). A description of the incident is already provided above. In relation to the feelings encountered, I felt tha t the student needed to secure a more stable and consistent classroom environment, one where he would not have to make constant adjustments. I also felt that the student also needed to adjust to a normal classroom setting in order to help him gain the social skills of interactions with his classmates. In evaluating what was good and bad about the experience, I felt that the teaching assi